Account 09 in accounting: examples and postings

Today we will try to figure out with you what is meant by account 09 in accounting. Let’s dwell on the formula for calculating this tax asset, try to understand how these amounts are formed during the implementation of fixed assets, and what typical postings exist to reflect such a situation. We will also have the opportunity to analyze an example of reflecting this situation in accounting in practice.

Definition and causes of occurrence

A huge number of companies in the process of carrying out financial and economic activities are faced with such a concept as a deferred tax asset. Such a phrase, at first glance, seems somehow incomprehensible.

If we talk about the nature of account 09, then it is active. The debit part of it reflects the accumulated amounts of deferred tax assets, while the credit part reflects their write-off.

As for the definition of the designated concept, here experts and current legislation explain it as the total difference in income tax, which is formed when there is a difference in accounting and fiscal accounting. The identified deviations according to the fiscal and accounting reports were defined as “deductible temporary differences”, i.e. they only exist for a while.

To put it simply, then on the 09th account a part of the income tax is formed, which is transferred to the next reporting periods. Thus, companies and organizations postpone for a certain period of time the fulfillment of obligations to pay tax to the budget.

During the next fiscal period, these amounts are accumulated on the 09th position of the balance sheet for each business transaction separately. In this situation, their merging is unacceptable. At the end of this period, the result obtained is transferred to line 1180 of the balance sheet in the section of non-current assets.

If you try to identify the reasons that lead to the occurrence of such a situation, then the following factors should be noted:

  • excess of the amount of tax paid to the state treasury over the amount of accrued liability;
  • if, in accordance with the accounting policy of the company, they form a reserve fund for the payment of vacation pay;
  • features of the procedure for making managerial and commercial decisions in fiscal and accounting reporting;
  • if the enterprise has suffered losses as a result of the sale of fixed assets.

Calculation procedure

Speaking about the deferred tax asset (DTA), it should be noted that it is calculated according to the following scheme:

SHE \u003d expenses that are taken into account in the financial statements in the current period, and in fiscal accounting in the future period x the income tax rate.

The amount obtained by this formula must be recorded in the debit part of the balance sheet item indicated above.

If it turns out that tax expenses are formed from the point of view of accounting, then the opposite situation will develop and fiscal profit with tax will become less than accounting. In this case, the repayment of IT occurs. A similar situation develops if later fiscal revenues are recognized in the financial statements.

In order to calculate the amount for reducing IT, the following formula is applied:

Amount payable = expenses that were written off in the financial statements in the previous period, and in tax accounting – in the current period x the corporate income tax rate.

According to the second formula, the amount received will be reflected in the credit part 09 of the account. In this situation, the deferred fiscal asset accumulated in a separate transaction will be fully repaid over time.

Formation of deferred tax assets upon the sale of fixed assets

Provided that this business transaction is not related to the main activity of the company, funds from the sale of fixed assets are reflected in the credit part of account 91, and in the debit part of the cost in the form of residual value of fixed assets.

If it so happened that the balance of the debit part exceeds the credit balance, then the result of the sale of property will be a loss.

According to accounting rules, this result should be taken into account immediately, but according to fiscal law, it should be written off in installments every month throughout the entire period according to the following formula:

Term (in months) \u003d Useful life – The actual period of operation of the property.

This indicator is calculated from 1 month after the object was registered, and ending with the month of its implementation.

Standard accounting entries

Typical accounting entries for IT are as follows:

  1. Dt 09 – Kt 68 – deferred tax asset in the event of its increase;
  2. Dt 68 – Kt 09 – deferred tax asset in case of its decrease;
  3. Dt 99 – Kt 09 – write-off of SHE in case of disposal of the object of taxation.

Examples of transactions for 09 balance sheet items from practice

Let’s imagine that there is a certain enterprise that has sold a fixed asset. The loss from the sale of property amounted to 120,000 rubles. By the time the OS was sold, its remaining useful life was 7 months.

If we talk about accounting, then the resulting loss should be reflected in the financial results of the reporting month in which the transaction was made. With regard to fiscal accounting, these costs should be written off over the entire remaining life of the operation gradually, i.e. for 7 months.

Starting from the next month after the implementation of the fixed assets, the enterprise should monthly include 3,428.6 rubles in expenses. (24,000 / 7 months).

As for the accounting entries, they looked like this:

  1. Dt 09 – Kt 68.04 – 24,000 rubles, the amount received SHE (120,000 x 20%);
  2. Dt 68.04 – Kt 09 – 685.72 rubles, monthly partial repayment of deferred tax;
  3. Dt 09 – Kt 09 – 20,571.4 rubles, the resulting difference between the revolutions.

The resulting amount of the difference between turnovers should be reflected in line 141 of the income statement for the reporting year.

Conclusion

In conclusion, I would like to add that it is necessary to correctly understand the essence of the deferred tax asset, as this affects the formation of the company’s financial result for the reporting period.

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